Ronaldinho named but no place for Kaka
Santos duo Neymar and Paulo Henrique Ganso were also named in a strong 23-man squad for the 28 February encounter in St Gallen, Switzerland.
Kaka has featured nine times for the La Liga leaders this year, but has seemingly not done enough to convince national coach Mano Menezes.
"I do not have an explanation for all players who are not in the squad," Menezes said at a press conference.
"This should not be the [end of the] line, with the respect I have for Kaka - it's an evaluation. Perhaps I didn't see something from him that I wanted to see."
Santos goalkeeper Rafael was the only new name in the group, while AC Milan's Robinho was overlooked along with injured team-mate Alexandre Pato.
The match, A Selecao's opening game of 2012, will be the first in a lengthy run of friendlies for Menezes' men as they build up for the FIFA Confederations Cup 2013 and the 2014 FIFA World Cup™ on home soil, while the younger players will also be looking to impress ahead of this summer's London Olympics.
Goalkeepers: Julio Cesar (Inter Milan), Diego Alves (Valencia), Rafael (Santos)
Defenders: Adriano (Barcelona), Alex Sandro (FC Porto), Dani Alves (Barcelona), Marcelo (Real Madrid), Danilo (FC Porto), Thiago Silva (AC Milan), David Luiz (Chelsea), Dede (Vasco da Gama), Luisao (Benfica), Elias (Sporting CP)
Midfielders: Fernandinho (Shakhtar Donetsk), Hernanes (Lazio), Sandro (Tottenham Hotspur), Paulo Henrique Ganso (Santos), Lucas (Sao Paulo)
Forwards: Ronaldinho (Flamengo), Neymar (Santos), Leandro Damiao (Internacional), Jonas (Valencia), Hulk (FC Porto)