Neves, Neymar inspire with doubles
His first came in the 72nd minute when he lashed a terrific left-footed volley beyond goalkeeper Fernando Prass.
Vasco drew level just two minutes later when defender Gum's boot flicked a cross past Diego Cavalieri for an own goal, but Neves was not finished and in the 86th minute curled the ball from a free-kick around the Vasco wall and into the bottom left corner.
Fluminense have the same number of points - 42 - as Atletico, and identical goals for and against records, but have played two more games than their rivals.
Neymar stars for Santos
Neymar scored both for Santos in their 2-1 win at Palmeiras, the first in the 45th minute a brilliant 30-yard free-kick strike and the second after 63 minutes a rather tame shot that goalkeeper Bruno should have kept out.
Palmeiras had gone ahead through Carlos Correa in the 41st minute before Santos' star striker took centre stage.
Giancarlo also netted twice for Ponte Preta in their 2-1 win over Portuguesa. The well-travelled frontman fired an acrobatic volleyed opener in the sixth minute, before Portuguesa levelled with a close-range header from Bruno Mineiro after 24 minutes.
Giancarlo was not finished and in the 84th minute stole in front of his marker to head powerfully downwards and into the right corner from ten yards for the winner.