Cahill hurt his knee in Chelsea's 2-0 victory over West Ham United on Sunday, but although he is set to miss Friday's game, he will be reassessed ahead of the important encounter with Montenegro next week.
Newcastle United centre-back Steven Taylor has been called up to take Cahill's place. Cahill's withdrawal gives England manager Roy Hodgson further problems in central defence.
Tottenham Hotspur defender Michael Dawson and Manchester United's Rio Ferdinand have already pulled out of the squad, with Manchester City's Joleon Lescott and Steven Caulker of Spurs drafted in as replacements.
Everton's Phil Jagielka is also unavailable due to injury.