New Nigeria boss Lars Lagerback dropped seven players in his final cut today with Peter Utaka, Onyekachi Apam, Brown Ideye and domestically-based duo Bassey Akpan and Terna Suswan also missing out.
Real Zaragoza striker Uche had been struggling with a knee injury while Everton's Anichebe was overlooked in favour of fellow English-based strikers Yakubu Aiyegbeni, Nwankwo Kanu and John Utaka.
Chelsea midfielder John Mikel Obi was included despite missing the end of the season with a knee injury.
Nigeria begin their FIFA World Cup finals campaign against Argentina in Johannesburg on 12 June, and will also play Greece and South Korea in Group B.
Nigeria's 23-man FIFA World Cup squad: Vincent Enyeama (Hapoel Tel Aviv), Dele Aiyenugba (Bnei Yehuda), Austin Ejide (Hapoel Petach Tikvah); Taye Taiwo (Marseille), Elderson Echiejile (Rennes), Chidi Odiah (CSKA Moscow), Joseph Yobo (Everton), Ayodele Adeleye (Sparta Rotterdam), Rabiu Afolabi (Salzburg), Danny Shittu (Bolton); Kalu Uche (Almeria), Dickson Etuhu (Fulham), John Mikel Obi (Chelsea), Sani Kaita (Alaniya), Haruna Lukman (Monaco), Yusuf Ayila (Dynamo Kiev); Yakubu Aiyegbeni (Everton), Nwankwo Kanu (Portsmouth), Obafemi Martins (Wolfsburg), John Utaka (Portsmouth), Victor Obinna Nsofor (Malaga), Osaze Odemwingie (Lokomotiv Moscow), Chinedu Ogbuke Obasi (Hoffenheim).
*Please note that squad lists only become official after they have been submitted to and announced by FIFA.