The 35-year-old has not worn the Argentina shirt in the last nine years, while there were two other late call-ups made by coach Diego Maradona with Rolando Schiavi and Rodrigo Brana receiving their first calls ever on Monday night.
Maradona decided to call up the trio after seeing that several of the 25 men he had picked arrive in Argentina with injuries. Inter Milan duo Diego Milito and Nicolas Burdisso and Boca Juniors midfielder Sebastian Battaglia are almost ruled out for these qualifiers.
Palermo's last appearance for Argentina was in a FIFA World Cup qualifier in November 2000, a 2-0 win over Chile.
Goalkeepers: Juan Pablo Carrizo (Zaragoza/Spain), Mariano Andujar (Catania/Italy), Sergio Romero (AZ Alkmaar/Netherlands)
Defenders: Javier Zanetti (Inter Milan/Italy), Nicolas Pareja (Espanyol/Spain), Fabricio Coloccini (Newcastle/England), Gabriel Heinze (Marseille/France), Nicolas Burdisso (Inter Milan/Italy), Sebastian Dominguez, Emiliano Papa, Nicolas Otamendi (all Velez Sarsfield), Rolando Schiavi (Newell's Old Boys)
Midfielders: Fernando Gago (Real Madrid/Spain), Javier Mascherano (Liverpool/England), Maxi Rodriguez (Atletico Madrid/Spain), Jesus Datolo (Napoli/Italy), Juan Sebastian Veron, Rodrigo Brana (both Estudiantes), Mario Bolatti (Huracan), Sebastian Battaglia (Boca Juniors)
Forwards: Carlos Tevez (Manchester City/England), Lionel Messi (Barcelona/Spain), Sergio Aguero (Atletico Madrid/Spain), Diego Milito (Inter Milan/Italy), Lisandro Lopez (Lyon/France), Ezequiel Lavezzi (Napoli/Italy), Eduardo Salvio (Lanus), Martin Palermo (Boca Juniors)