The deal, which includes an option to extend the contract by a further year, will see Carrick complete a decade of service at Old Trafford since his £18m arrival from Tottenham Hotspur in 2006.
"It's great to extend my contract at this club," the 32-year-old said. "I'm really enjoying my football. I've won many trophies and look forward to more."
Carrick, currently sidelined with an Achilles injury, has won five Premier League titles, a UEFA Champions League crown and the League Cup with the Red Devils, having initially made his name at West Ham United.