The 33-year-old Vancouver Whitecaps striker won the last of his 69 caps in the 3-2 defeat to England at Wembley last week and signed off with a goal - his 18th for his country.
The former Hibernian, Rangers, Celtic, Wolverhampton Wanderers and Cardiff City player quits the national team with only Kenny Dalglish, Denis Law, Hughie Gallacher, Lawrie Reilly and Ally McCoist ahead of him on the all-time list of Scotland goalscorers.
The Edinburgh native began his career with Hibernian in 1998 and is only one of only five post-war players to have played for both Rangers and Celtic, winning four Scottish Premier League titles, three of them with the Ibrox club. He also won two Scottish Cups, one with each of the Glasgow-based clubs.
He left Rangers for Turkish club Bursaspor in January 2011, but his 22 goals up to that point of the season was still enough to make him the SPL top scorer.
Later in Miller's career, he had a brief spell with Cardiff and helped them to the League Cup final in 2012 before signing with the Vancouver Whitecaps of the Major League Soccer, where he recently signed a contract extension with the Canadian club until 2014.
He made his international debut in 2001 under Craig Brown and was a regular starter under future managers Berti Vogts, Walter Smith, Alex McLeish, George Burley, Craig Levein, before playing his final match under Gordon Strachan.