The 32-year-old Liverpool star edged out Danny Welbeck and Ashley Cole to clinch the award.
England captain Gerrard became his country's sixth cap centurion in November when he chalked up his 100th appearance in the meeting with Sweden.
"I still feel fresh, looking forward to the next game as much as my debut. Every time you put the England shirt on, it is a proud moment," said the Liverpool midfielder.
Gerrard said: "The award means a lot to me when you look at the quality and standard of players in this squad.
"For me to be picked out to win an individual award is a bonus and something I'm really delighted with.
"It's always a proud feeling to play for this team and the manager believing in me and giving me the captaincy was a huge lift for my personal confidence.
"I think I've shown a level of consistency that maybe I haven't shown in previous years so it's been a good year.
"But the most important thing for me is achieving stuff with the team and unfortunately we lost out on penalties again in Euro 2012 and that's the reason I stayed around.
"I believe in the standard of players we've got and got confidence in them so that one day I can come away one of these tournaments with my head held high and there will be some success there."
More than 180,000 votes were cast by supporters on TheFA.com - a record for the player poll since David Beckham was crowned in 2003.
Left-back Stephanie Houghton was voted the England women's player of the year.
Houghton was a star performer for Team GB during the Olympic Women's Football Tournament London 2012 and scored the winner against Brazil.
Other notable award winners included the women's senior team who were voted Club England Team of the Year.
The men's Under-21 and women's Under-23 players of the year awards went to Liverpool midfielder Jordan Henderson and Toni Duggan respectively.
The evening was part of The FA's 150th anniversary calendar and celebrated the work of the Bobby Moore Fund for Cancer Research UK.