Galatasaray playmaker Turan set the hosts on their way after 27 minutes and Fenerbahce full-back Gonul's first international goal 13 minutes from time made sure of the result.
Hamit Altintop asked the first question of Jurgen Macho in the sixth minute with a fierce drive from the edge of the area, but the Austria goalkeeper was up to the task and tipped the ball around the post.
Turkey goalkeeper Volkan Demirel comfortably caught a David Alaba free-kick at the other end and then looked on as Alaba and then Paul Scharner fired wide.
Turan gave a warning of what was to come in the 21st minute when he headed over the bar from a Mehmet Ekici corner. Seven minutes later the hosts were ahead, Turan lashing into the bottom-right corner from 12 yards.
He could have doubled his tally six minutes after the interval but arrowed his right-footed effort wide from just outside the area. Ekici too struck a shot over the bar as Turkey pressed for a second goal to give themselves some breathing space.
Nurnberg midfielder Ekici, a former Germany U-21 international, then turned provider for Burak Yilmaz but he got underneath the header and failed to test Macho.
Volkan had to be alert in the 69th minute to divert a Christian Fuchs free-kick away for a corner, and the save proved crucial as eight minutes later Turkey grabbed their second when Gonul's left-footed strike from Semih Senturk's pass found the bottom-right corner.
Austria must have sensed it was not to be their night and that was confirmed six minutes from time when Volkan dived to his right to save Maierhofer's penalty after Hakan Kadir Balta had fouled Erwin Hoffer.