Club doctor Rodrigo Lasmar told reporters the 2002 FIFA World Cup™ champion had suffered the injury on Thursday and an MRI showed a torn muscle.
However, he expessed hope that the 33-year-old would return in time for the December event in Morocco.
"We must be careful in talking about time frames when it comes to a muscle injury -- it depends much on the player," Globo Sports quoted Lasmar as saying.
"It is a serious injury and the recovery time is not short. He could be back in three months, three and a half, two and a half.
"I think it is possible he will play the World championship."
But the veteran is keen to add a major club honour having in July already helped Atletico to their first Copa Libertadores title at the expense of three-time Paraguayan champions Olimpia.