No sport carries out more doping controls than football, with
more than 20,000 tests performed each year. According to FIFA data,
less than 1% of these samples test positive and the vast majority
of these involve recreational drugs such as marijuana and cocaine.
Less than 0.1% of these samples contain performance-enhancing
This very low rate of occurrence shows that education and information are just as important as sanctions. In this section, you will find individual chapters on the main substances involved in doping. The sequence of chapters corresponds to the frequency with which substances are detected in footballers, starting first of all with marijuana.
Other banned substances and methods such as EPO, growth hormones and blood doping are also described in detail. While no signs of EPO or blood doping have been detected in football so far, both of these are frequently reported in the media. This is why their effects and risks are described, too.